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January 25, 2006|
Conversion of Saint Paul
Born September 15, 1858 in Strasbourg into a very Christian family, Charles lost his mother, then his father, in the same year, 1864. He was then entrusted, along with his only sister, Marie, to the care of his grandfather, Monsieur de Morlet, a retired colonel. Affectionate, passionate, and studious, Charles was spoiled by his grandfather, who responded to the boy's fits of anger with indulgence, considering them a sign of character. Monsieur de Morlet and the two children moved to Nancy in 1872. At that point Charles began mixing his studies with all sorts of readings chosen without discernment. At the end of his school years, he lost all faith, «and that was not my only sin,» he would later admit... «Children are thrown into the world without being given the weapons necessary to fight the host of enemies they will find both within and outside of themselves. Christian philosophers resolved, so long ago and so clearly, all the questions that every young man feverishly asks himself, without suspecting that the answers are right there, luminous and clear, just a step away!» He would later insist that his nephews have Christian teachers: «I never had a bad teacher, but youth must be taught not by neutrals, but by faith-filled and holy souls, who moreover know how to give the reason for their beliefs and inspire young people with a firm confidence in the truth of their faith...»
All impiety, all desire for evil
He was twenty-four years old. He was attracted by the silence of the North African countries, the wide-open spaces, the unpredictable and primitive way of life, the mysteriousness of the inhabitants... He resigned from the army and set off on a most difficult expeditionto explore Morocco, a country at the time still very closed, especially to Christians. Accompanied by a Moroccan-born Jewish rabbi and passing himself off as a rabbi, too, Charles crossed the border in June 1883. For eleven months, he criss-crossed Morocco. A number of surveying instruments, hidden in the folds of his garments, allowed him, at the constant risk of being caught, to make observations and take notes on this still unexplored country. In May 1884, he returned to France loaded with scientific data which he wrote up in a book, Reconnaissance au Maroc, that immediately gained him great respect in scientific circles.
His family welcomed him with joy and affection. They knew his excesses and his state of mind, but did not reproach him. On the contrary, they congratulated him on the success of his adventure and put him in contact with the most select company, carefully chosen for its quality of mind and Christian convictions. Charles had been deeply affected by what he had seen in North Africa, and especially the continual invocation of God. All of the religious aspects of Muslim life led him to say to himself, «And me with no religion!» He even imagined becoming Muslim but, even at first glance, it seemed to him that the religion of Mohammed could not be true, because it was «too materialistic.» In spite of the pleasant life he was leading, his sadness only grew. In his free time, he looked at the books of pagan philosophers. Their answers seemed weak...
No one has been able to take it from Him....
At thirty-two years of age, he adapted effortlessly to the rules of the monastery. The only thing that was difficult for his proud nature was obedience. In his struggles, he was sustained by his initial intention: «I wanted to enter religious life to keep Our Lord company in His sufferings... Jesus is taking me by the hand, placing me in His peace, chasing away the sadness as soon as it tries to draw near.» On June 27, 1890, Brother Alberic fulfilled a plan about which he had spoken to his Abbot from the day of his arrival: to join a very poor monastery in Syria, the Trappist monastery of Akbes, so as to live there unknown, even poorer, and to be close to the Holy Land where the Son of God had suffered and worked. There, the monks lived in the midst of a population made up of Kurds, Syrians, Turks, and Armenians, who would be, he wrote, «a brave, hard-working, and honest people, if they were instructed, governed, and above all, converted... It is our responsibility to build the future of these peoples. The future, the only real future, is eternal life. This life is only the short test that prepares us for the other... Preaching in Muslim countries is difficult, but over so many centuries missionaries have overcome plenty of other difficulties... Let us give them the example of a perfect life, of a better and divine life.»
In 1892, a few months after taking his vows, Brother Alberic received the order to begin theological studies for the priesthood. In spite of the «extreme repugnance» he felt for everything that distanced him from the lowest place that he had come for, he set to work. At the same time, he explained to the Father Abbot General the persistent attraction he felt for an even poorer way of life, outside the Cistercian order. The Father Abbot sent him to Rome for two years of studies. Obedient, Brother Alberic arrived there in October 1896. However, the following January, the Abbot General gave him permission to leave the Trappist order to follow God's call.
«I was infinitely happy»
«When, despite so many graces, I began to stray from You, with what sweetness You called me back to You through my grandfather's voice, with what mercy You kept me from falling into the worst excesses by preserving my tenderness for him in my heart!... But despite all that, alas, I distanced myself, I distanced myself more and more from You, my Lord and my life... and so my life began to be a death, or rather it was already a death in Your eyes... And in this state of death, You still preserved meall faith had gone, but respect and regard for religion remained intact...
«Through circumstances You made me stay chaste, and soon, at the end of the winter of 1886, having brought me back to my family in Paris, chastity became for me a sweetness and a need of my heart. It was You Who did that, my God, You alone; I, alas, was for nothing in it! It was necessary to prepare my soul for the Truth. The demon is too much master of an unchaste soul to allow the Truth to enter it... You, my God, could not enter a soul where the demon of impure passions reigns as master... My God, how will I sing Your mercies!...
«A beautiful soul was assisting You, but through its silence, its gentleness, its perfection. It allowed itself to be seen, it was good and emitted its alluring fragrance, but it did not act. You, my Jesus, my Savior, You did everything inside as well as outside. So you gave me four graces. The first was to inspire me with the thought that since this soul was so intelligent, the Religion that it believed in so firmly could not be the madness I first thought. The second was to inspire me with this next thought: since this Religion is not madness, perhaps Truth is on earth in no other religion, nor in any other philosophical system, but this one? The third was to tell me to then study this Religion, to take a teacher for Catholicism, a learned priest, and see what there is in it. The fourth was the incomparable grace of introducing me to Father Huvelin... And since then, my God, it has been nothing but a series of graces... A rising tide, always rising!»
One Mass more each day
From then on, Father Charles of Jesus's life took place in the desertfirst at Beni-Abbes, in the southern Oran, then in Tamanrasset, in the Hoggar Mountains, 1,500 km south of Algiers. He knew that he was certainly the first priest to ever live in and celebrate the Holy Mass in these places. His purpose was to open the hearts of the MuslimsArabs, then Tuaregsby bringing them into contact with Christian civilization and with a priest, so that they could later be evangelized by missionaries in the ordinary sense of the word. He showed them a great and selfless charity, speaking to them about God and teaching them the precepts of natural religion.
It has been claimed that Father de Foucauld did not preach the faith in any way, and limited himself to being a silent presence in the midst of the Muslims. This already annoyed General Laperine, who noted in his journal: «What about his conversation! And his dress!» When anyone arrived at the door of his hermitage, Brother Charles would appear, wrapped in a white caftan, on which was sewn a red heart surmounted by a cross, his eyes full of serenity and his hand outstretched. The image of the Sacred Heart proclaimed the faith of this white man, and his whole life revealed the Gospel. The natives made no mistake about it. In a report to the Apostolic Prefect for the Sahara, Brother Charles wrote, «For the slaves (slavery being then a common practice in the desert), I have a little room where I gather them together...; little by little, I am teaching them to pray to Jesus... Poor travelers also find humble refuge and a poor meal at the Fraternity, with a warm welcome and a few words to incline them to goodness and to Jesus...» He wrote to a friend: «I am cut to the heart when I see children from the town set off in search of adventure, with no trade, no education, no religious instruction... A few good Sisters of Charity would, in a short time and with God's help, give this whole country to Jesus.»
A cure for sadness
When the First World War (1914-18) broke out in Europe, Father Charles had been settled in the Hoggar Mountains for nine years. Of the six Tuareg tribes in the midst of which he lived, three had submitted themselves to France and remained loyal to it, but the others took advantage of the European conflict to inspire the people with the spirit of rebellion. They knew the hermit's great influence over the Tuaregs of Hoggar. «Tamanrasset's great interest,» wrote a French doctor in January 1914, «is Father de Foucauld's presence. Through his goodness, holiness, and skill, he has gained great reputation among the people.» He became the target of rebels who organized an attack. On December 1, 1916, they silently approached the small fort where he lived and knocked on the door which the hermit trustingly opened: he was then seized and tied up. Understanding what was happening, he waited for death. Finally the moment so longed for, of joining the Beloved had come! «Let us endure all insults,» he had written, «blows, wounds, and death, in praying for those who hate us... following Jesus' example, for no other reason than to show Jesus that we love Him.»
Surprised by two soldiers loyal to France, the attackers panicked. The one guarding Father Charles shot him point-blank in the head. The priest slowly slid down the wall and collapsed. Father Charles de Foucauld was dead, a victim of his loving zeal for these peoples in whom the light of faith had never shone. He had dedicated his life to making known to them the true God incarnate in Jesus Christ, to enabling them to experience the mercy from which he himself had benefited so dramatically, and of which, from gratitude, he wanted to be the herald. It was only on December 21 that Captain de La Roche, the commanding officer for the Hoggar region, was able to get to Tamanrasset. On the priest's tomb he planted a wooden cross. Then he entered into the fortified hermitage that the bandits had pillaged. He recovered Father Charles' rosary, stations of the cross he had delicately drawn in pen and ink on small boards, and a wooden cross that also bore a very beautiful image of Christ...
Monstrance in the sand
At Beni-Abbes, Charles had established a rule of life in which prayer took first place: Holy Mass followed by thanksgiving, the breviary, Stations of the Cross, Rosary... But adoration of the Most Blessed Sacrament was the most important of all; he devoted three and a half hours to it daily, divided into three periods of silence. One reads in his diary: «May 1903Thirty years ago today I made my first Communion, and I received the Good Lord for the first time... And here I am holding Jesus in my poor hands! Him, putting Himself in my hands! And here, night and day, I rejoice in the holy tabernacle where I possess Jesus, as it were, for myself! Here, every morning I consecrate the Holy Eucharist, every evening I give Benediction with it!»
With his burning love for Jesus in the Eucharist, Brother Charles anticipated the call that the Servant of God John Paul II would send forth to the whole Church a century later: «Dear brothers and sisters... Here is the Church's treasure... In the Eucharist we have Jesus, we have His redemptive sacrifice, we have His resurrection, we have the gift of the Holy Spirit, we have adoration, obedience and love of the Father. Were we to disregard the Eucharist, how could we overcome our own deficiency? ... In the humble signs of bread and wine, changed into His Body and Blood, Christ walks beside us as our strength and our food for the journey, and He enables us to become, for everyone, witnesses of hope» (Ecclesia de Eucharistia, April 17, 2003, nos. 59, 60, 62).
Charles de Foucauld, who was beatified in Rome last November 13th, loved the Eucharist as though he saw Christ present in it with his own eyes. Let us ask him to light in our souls an ever-greater love for Him who wishes to remain in our midst as our confidant, our support, our true and faithful Friend.